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While musicologists define the blues in terms of microtones and twelve-measure patterns (in contrast to the eight, sixteen, or thirty-32 bars in early jazz and ragtime), the average listener recognizers this musical form by such features as its triple-line stanzas, with repetition of the first line, bottleneck-guitar tecnique, and charatteristic melodic effects, such as flattened (or diminished) “blue notes”, which produce the sad and mournful sound that complements the subject matter of the song. The personal, melancholic themes typically deal with the trials and tribulations of daily living, and, says Moa Asch of Folkways Records, “the blues goes back as far as people have known trouble”.